Frontal crash testing:
In this test the car is driven into a wall at 35 miles per hour (56 kph). This is equivalent to a head-on collision between two identical cars each traveling at 35 miles per hour, or at a closing speed of 70 miles per hour. About 15 high-speed cameras will document the action, shooting about 1,000 frames per second.
Side impact crash testing:
In this test a sled of 3,015-lb (1,368-kg) with a collapsible bumper hits the side of the test car. This is the equivalent of a car being sideswiped by another car.
How safety system works in crash test:
Though avoiding crash is the ideal situation it is not possible always. So the best case scenario is the smoothest crash which results in the survival of the person in the car. Absorbing the kinetic energy that drops from a high speed to zero after the crash is the key in this case. Safety systems must absorb this kinetic energy as slowly and as evenly as possible to prevent injuries. Seatbelt forms the first line of defense and removes some of the impact. Then milliseconds later, to stop the force of the seatbelt from becoming too high and thus hurtful, force limiters in the seatbelt kick in. Then the airbag releases, and it absorbs some more of the forward motion and prevents occupants from slamming into a hard part of car. In this way all the systems act together to minimize the kinetic energy.
The growth of technology and continuous researches on crash testing are helping to make the accidents less fatal and save thousands of lives.