Car Paint Chip Repair Options - Mar 28, 2011 - 1:02:14 AM
Car Paint Chip Repair Options Find out which car paint repair option works best for you. Do it yourself, going through your insurance company, finding a professional or a kit are some of the options available when your car has scratches or chips in the paint.
Car Suspension and How It Works - May 18, 2009 - 7:30:00 PM
Your vehicle's suspension plays a vital role in the way we drive in comfort today. It's nothing like the old days with little shock absorbing systems in use, and roads cut right into the landscape of the country.
The Fuel Pump in Your Car How it Works - Jun 27, 2008 - 6:24:00 PM
It may be invisible in the engine bay, but the fuel pump is at the heart of your car’s mechanics.
What Your Car Radiator Does - Jun 27, 2008 - 6:00:00 PM
Car radiators were designed to fend off the ravages of the heat created in the engine bay.
Car Clutches and How they Work - May 12, 2008 - 12:50:00 PM
Automatic may be the more convenient choice, but getting to grips with gears will make for a different driving experience.
The Car Window Sticker How to Read it - Jan 27, 2008 - 9:40:00 PM
When you are buying a new or used car do you read the window sticker? This little sticker has a lot of useful information that will give you information that is important about the car. Here is a little guide to tell you how to read the window sticker so
Headlight Assembly - Dec 10, 2007 - 12:12:00 PM
It is very important for a vehicle of any kind to have headlights as they are used to provide illumination at night or in poor visabilty so that you can see where you are driving. Without them driving would be quite difficult.
Supercar What is it? - Nov 19, 2007 - 12:26:00 AM
Supercar is a name that is used to define a high-end sports car whose performance of a caliber that far exceeds those of its rivals. Supercar is also a subjective term.
Cyclone Green Revolution Engine How it Works - Nov 15, 2007 - 11:00:00 PM
Cyclone Power Technologies has recently made some very bold claims in the field of energy. By developing what they call the Green Revolution engine, Cyclone claims to be able to satisfy the energy needs of any automobile, heavy truck or power generating plant through the use of low emissions alternative
Water Pump and How it Works - Oct 23, 2007 - 7:12:00 PM
When you think of your car’s water pump, think of it as you’re the heart of your car’s cooling system. In doing so, you can enjoy the comfort of a nice and cool car in the midst of a record setting heat-wave.
Replacing Your Car’s Headlight Bulbs - Oct 13, 2007 - 10:04:00 PM
Besides just looking tacky, a burnt out headlight bulb on your car isn’t safe. Believe it or not, automobile makers put those there for a reason. So if you have already had a conversation with Mr. Patrolman or want to avoid one, light bulb and lamp maintenance is a necessity.
What is a Supercar? - Sep 27, 2007 - 11:28:00 PM
For high-end sportscar enthusiasts, the “Holy Grail” is the so-called “supercar.” A supercar is an ultra high-end sportscar with features, power and handling far exceeding the average production model.
What is a GPS System? - Sep 23, 2007 - 10:58:00 PM
GPS stands for “Global Positioning System.” A GPS is a Global Navigation Satellite System that uses a number of satellites to send transmission data from earth, to the satellite, and back again.
How Does OnStar Work - Sep 20, 2007 - 10:10:00 PM
If you are driving a General Motors vehicle that was made in 1996 or after, chances are that you may be driving an OnStar automobile. The OnStar technology is one that was originally intended for life-saving purposes, but GM has since made OnStar an all-encompassing service for its passengers.
Beyond Round, Rubber and Black - Sep 4, 2007 - 9:28:00 PM
Tires are one of the most technologically sophisticated systems on any automobile. They are a primary factor in the overall comfort and performance of your vehicle. Tires -; while they don't exactly come in all shapes -; certainly come in all sizes and have unique, identifying information embedded on their
A Head Gasket What is It - Aug 20, 2007 - 9:18:00 PM
A Head Gasket is a very important seal in a vehicles engine that sits between the engine block and the cylinder head (this is a machined casting that contains cylindrically bored holes for the pistons) in an internal combustion engine. Today you will find that all cars are equipped with
The Alternator - Jul 25, 2007 - 12:52:00 AM
Information on what an alternator is and how it functions, as well as how you can go about changing your alternator if need be.
What are Tweel Airless Tires? - Jul 23, 2007 - 11:38:00 AM
If you have ever thought about the future of automobile production, one thing that you probably have not thought about is the type of wheels that will go on futuristic automobiles. On the contrary, Michelin has introduced new wheels that are not really wheels at all, but they're called Tweels.
The Hemi Engine - Jul 23, 2007 - 11:14:00 AM
If you are a car fanatic or car buff then you probably already know about all the hype that was created in the 1950's and '60's with the HEMI engine. Many people love the power that was created with the advent of this engine, and even though the HEMI engine
The GM Hy-wire - Jul 19, 2007 - 11:48:00 PM
So have you ever wanted to look into the future of automobiles? If you are thinking about a car like the Jetson's, it's a long way off, so for now your out of luck. But if you want to see what the future to see what the future of automakers
How the Distributor Contributes To Getting Your Automobile Ignition System Working Properly - Jul 18, 2007 - 11:06:00 PM
One of the key components to getting your car ignition systems to work is the distributor. The distributor takes on several roles within your vehicle, each being equally important. One of the many jobs is to distribute the high voltage from the coil to the correct cylinder, which is a
Car Thermostat and How it Works - Jun 28, 2007 - 9:58:00 PM
A thermostat regulates temperature and keeps it at a desired level. How does it do that? By controlling the heating or cooling mechanisms so that the temperature is maintained at a constant level.
Mechanical Fuel Pumps vs. Electrical Fuel Pumps - Jun 22, 2007 - 12:42:00 AM
Information on what a fuel pump is and what it does, as well as the difference between a mechanical fuel pump and an electrical fuel pump.
The Alternator How It Works - Jun 21, 2007 - 12:02:00 PM
In the good old days, it was called a generator. The alternator does what its name suggests – it turns mechanical energy into AC or alternating current electrical energy.
Car Struts - What Are They and How They Work - Mar 29, 2007 - 9:27:00 PM
Struts are used on the front end of nearly every front-wheel-drive vehicle. They are more than shock absorbers and with a different name. A strut integrates numerous different suspension parts into one compact assembly.
The Oxygen Sensor and How it Works - Mar 28, 2007 - 11:26:00 PM
It is necessary to have an oxygen sensor as it is a vital component of a vehicle’s emission system. Some old vehicles have fuel injection systems, while all new vehicles have them, in which a computer will regulate the amount of fuel that is delivered to the engine.
Catalytic Converter - What is It and How They Work - Mar 19, 2007 - 11:37:00 PM
catalytic converter, which is also known as a catalytic oxidizer, is a component found in the exhaust system of a vehicle. What the catalytic converter does is burn the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to create nitrogen. It does this by using platinum and palladium/rhodium as catalysts, but at the same
Fan Clutch What Is It and Whats it Do - Feb 9, 2007 - 4:17:00 PM
The fan clutch is an automatic device that is often used in a vehicle’s cooling system. So, when the engine is cool or even when it is at a normal operating temperature, the fan clutch will partially disengage the engine’s radiator cooling fan (which is mechanically driven). This is normally
Fuel Pumps and How They Work - Jan 29, 2007 - 12:21:00 AM
The reason a vehicle needs a fuel pump is because the fuel tank is located on the opposite side of the vehicle to where the engine is. The job of the fuel pump is to draw the gas towards the engine.
How To Change Your Air Filter - Dec 3, 2006 - 9:10:00 PM
Changing the air filter is one of the easiest automotive maintenance jobs to perform on your car. It will save you time and money if you do it yourself instead of taking the car to your mechanic to do. You can buy the new air filter at the auto parts
How to Check and Change Your Antifreeze/Coolant - Dec 3, 2006 - 5:02:00 PM
Do you even know why you put Antifreeze/Coolant into your car's radiator? The engine of a car produces high levels of heat when it is running and the fluids flowing through the radiator system help to draw some of the heat away from the engine and in colder weather it
What Is A Tie Rod - Nov 9, 2006 - 11:07:00 PM
The tie rod is part of the steering mechanism in a vehicle. A tie rod is a slender structural rod that is used as a tie and capable of carrying tensile loads only. A tie rod consists of an inner and an outer end. The spokes on a bicycle’s wheels
How to Change Your Car Oil - Oct 12, 2006 - 9:43:00 PM
So you want to change your car’s oil and filter. Besides the obvious importance of car maintenance and regular oil changes, it is cheaper and faster to take care of this service issue yourself. Before getting started, collect the correct tools and supplies. Follow these simple steps and before you
How to Align Your Cars Headlights - Oct 11, 2006 - 1:13:00 AM
Driving along one evening it comes to your attention that other drivers are consistently flashing their headlights at you. You don’t know them and you haven't seen any signs of a speed trap. The other drivers may be trying to let you know your headlights are out of alignment.
How Anti Lock Car Brakes Work - Sep 27, 2006 - 11:55:00 AM
An anti lock braking system (ABS) is a system on motor vehicles that prevents the wheels from locking while you are braking. It is a very safe and effective system and the purpose of this is twofold: it allows the driver to maintain steering control under heavy braking and, in
Timing Belts - How they Work - Aug 30, 2006 - 10:54:00 PM
Timing Belts are reinforced rubber bands or sometimes chains that are used to coordinate the turnings of the crankshafts and camshafts in internal combustion engines. There are teeth situated in the inner part of some timing beltsm and these will correspond to the gears of a specific engine design.
Fuel Filter How It Works - Aug 11, 2006 - 1:00:00 PM
The fuel filter is found along the fuel lines, either in the engine compartment or underneath the vehicle by the fuel tank. The job of the fuel filter is to trap any large foreign particles in the fuel and stop them from getting into the engine. With the force of
How Car Crash Testing Works - Aug 11, 2006 - 12:31:00 AM
Have you ever wondered how car crash tests are conducted? Today, cars are much safer than they were some years back as now there is a well-established testing program. Also the federal law requires all cars to pass a 30-mile-per-hour frontal crash test.
Child Car Seats and How They Work - Aug 11, 2006 - 12:27:00 AM
Every object in the car including the people in it has inertia of their own which is different from that of the car. An unrestrained passenger is likely to hit the dashboard or go flying through the windshield once the car stops suddenly. In adults, seatbelts come into the picture
How Car Brakes are Suppose to Work - Aug 11, 2006 - 12:20:00 AM
Brakes are a very important part to anyones vehicle because without them we wouldn’t be able to stop. Therefore it just common sense that we all know that pushing down on the brake pedal slows a vehicle down to stop. The typical passenger-vehicle brake system is relatively simple.
Fuel Injectors How They Work - Jul 30, 2006 - 10:16:00 PM
Fuel Injectors have now totally replaced carburetors that were for many years used for fuel delivery. It is their job to deliver the fuel into the engine’s combustion chambers to be burned. Fuel injectors are part of a computerized system that sprays the fuel into the combustion chambers at regular
Alternators and How They Work - Jul 30, 2006 - 10:12:00 PM
The alternator is an important part of the engine because it perpetuates the reproduction of power. The battery supplies the initial boost the engine needs to start the vehicle. The alternator takes over and replaces the power used in the battery by the starting of the engine.
The Thermostat in Your Car - Jul 12, 2006 - 11:25:00 PM
A thermostat is a simple device that is basically a thermometer that is attached to a switch that turns on your heater. When it is cold, you turn your heater on and when it is hot, you turn the air conditioner on to cool you down. In an automobile the
How E-Z Pass Works - Jul 9, 2006 - 8:49:00 PM
E-Z Pass is here to help all those harried motorists who do not keep a change and still want to pass the toll plaza without stopping. It operates on a prepaid system. You are able to use E-Z Pass anytime, without any restrictions.
E-Z Pass work on the principle of
How Air Cars Will Work - Jul 9, 2006 - 8:46:00 PM
Gasoline has been the main source of fuel for the history of vehicles, and is becoming more and more expensive. Vehicle manufacturers are leading more to developing vehicles that are fueled by alternative energies. Two hybrid cars took to the road in 2000, and in three or four years fuel-cell-powered
How Automatic Transmissions Work - Jul 9, 2006 - 8:44:00 PM
The automatic transmission is a vehicle’s gearbox that is able to change the gear ratios automatically as the vehicle moves. This then allows the driver to be free from having to shift gears manually. Most vehicles that have been sold in the United States since the 1950s have been equipped
How Buying a Car Works - Jul 9, 2006 - 8:43:00 PM
Buying a vehicle can be a very daunting task. There are few things you must keep in mind before you walk into the showroom to buy a vehicle. Decide on what you want: The first thing is to decide whether you want a new or a used vehicle. There are
How Automobile Ignition Systems Work - Jul 9, 2006 - 6:01:00 PM
The automobile ignition system of internal combustion engine is an important part of the whole engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. All petrol (gasoline) engines require an ignition system. The ignition system is usually switched on and off through a lock
How A Car’s Cooling System Works - Jul 8, 2006 - 10:49:00 PM
Most of the energy in the gasoline is converted into heat and it is the job of the cooling system to care of that heat. Therefore the cooling system is quite an important part of the vehicle. In actual fact, the cooling system on a vehicle that is driving down
The Distributor What does it Do - Jun 14, 2006 - 10:46:00 PM
The distributor is found in the ignition system of an internal combustion engine and it is commonly referred to a device that routes the high voltage into the correct firing order to the spark plugs. Both Magnetos and Battery Ignitions have a distributor. The distributor consists of a rotating arm,
Wiper Blades How They Work - Jun 14, 2006 - 10:45:00 PM
A wiper blade, otherwise known as a windshield wiper in North America is a device that is used to wipe the rain and the dirt away from the windscreen. Almost all automobiles are equipped with wiper blades, most of the time by a legal requirement. Although, as strange as it
Disc Brakes - Jun 14, 2006 - 10:43:00 PM
You may not have put much thought into your vehicle’s air filter just because it seems like such a simple aspect of the car’s maintenance. Actually, air filters can make a tremendous difference in the life and general performance of any gas powered engine.
Depending on where you live, how
How Seatbelts Work - Jun 14, 2006 - 10:36:00 PM
Seatbelts are seen by nearly most safety experts as devices that increase chances of survival in a crash. As per National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration reports, 13,000 lives in the United States are saved every year by seatbelts. NHTSA findings also suggest that chances of a fatal accident are
Tires, How They Work - Jun 14, 2006 - 10:27:00 PM
We all know that the tires on our vehicles are important, and that there should be the right psi of air in them at all times for the vehicles performance and our safety as well as saving gas. In this article you will learn how tires are made and how
How Car Computers Work - Jun 14, 2006 - 10:03:00 PM
The vehicles of today aren't like the cars of the early days that ran with carbureted engines. While you would have to stop halfway through while driving from a low altitude location to a high altitude location to have a mechanic adjust the carburetor, the vehicles of today have car
Power Brakes and How They Work - May 19, 2006 - 1:26:00 AM
To enhance the efficiency of the braking system a new system was designed called power brake system. It is also called ‘power assisted ‘brakes. This system uses the power of engine and also battery to increase the efficiency of braking system. Earlier power brakes were not required as most of
Car Alarms - How They Work - May 11, 2006 - 11:37:00 PM
Do you know that every 25 seconds a vehicle is stolen? Billions of dollars are lost by consumers every year because of thefts. A car alarm is of a great help in protecting your car from theft. Let us have a look at how a car alarm works.
Air Filter - May 11, 2006 - 8:43:00 PM
You may not have put much thought into your vehicle’s air filter just because it seems like such a simple aspect of the car’s maintenance. Actually, air filters can make a tremendous difference in the life and general performance of any gas powered engine. Depending on where you live, how
Brake Master Cylinder - How It Works - May 11, 2006 - 7:20:00 PM
The master cylinder is the heart of the brake system. Housed deep in the body of the engine compartment, the master cylinder is a hydraulic pump designed to supply hydraulic fluid under pressure to each of the wheels. Anything affecting the braking system of a vehicle is of utmost importance
Car Headlights - May 7, 2006 - 9:32:00 PM
A headlight or a headlamp is a lamp. They are attached to the front of a vehicle and it enables us to be able to see when driving in the dark or when there are periods of low visibility, as they illuminate the road ahead. Some of the earliest headlights
The Exhaust System How it Works - May 7, 2006 - 9:19:00 PM
The exhaust is the mechanism that conveys the burnt gases from an internal combustion engine and it will typically include a collection of pipes. So basically, the exhaust system will just vent waste gases from the engine. It all depends on the overall system design, but the exhaust gas can
Brake Pads When to Change Them - May 7, 2006 - 9:15:00 PM
There is nothing more important than your vehicle being able to stop. Therefore it is without a doubt that your brakes are the most important part of being able to drive your vehicle. Anybody will tell you this - even race car drivers will tell you it’s a lot more
How a Ignition Coil or Spark Coil Works - May 7, 2006 - 9:14:00 PM
An ignition coil, which is also known as a spark coil is an induction coil in an automobile’s ignition system. It transforms a storage battery’s 12 volts to the thousands of volts needed to spark the spark plugs.
Clutch What it is and How it Works - May 7, 2006 - 8:56:00 PM
clutch is the mechanism for transmitting rotation, which can be engaged and disengaged. When we talk about a clutch in everyday life, we mostly referring to a subcomponent of a motor vehicle engine’s transmission that is designed to allow us to change gears when we drive. It allows the engagement
Shock Absorbers How They Work - May 7, 2006 - 9:31:00 AM
In a vehicle, it will reduce the effect of traveling over any rough ground. If there were no shock absorbers, the vehicle would just have a very bouncy ride, as energy is stored in the springs and then released to the vehicle. This could possibly exceed the allowed range of
How Car Brakes Work - May 3, 2006 - 11:59:00 PM
Car Brakes are the device we use for slowing down or stopping the motion of a vehicle and also to keep it from starting to move again. So it is without a doubt that the car brakes are the most important part of driving a vehicle.
How Car Turn Signals Work - May 3, 2006 - 11:55:00 PM
The purpose of this system is provide illumination for the driver to operate the vehicle safely after dark, or in poor visibility situations and to display information about the vehicle’s presence, position, size, brake status and the direction in which you wish to travel.
Car Radiators and How They Work - May 3, 2006 - 11:51:00 PM
A radiator is a common used term for many different types of heat exchanges. The radiator can be located under the hood of the vehicle as it is mounted behind the vehicle’s grille.
Car Starters How They Work - May 3, 2006 - 11:31:00 PM
In the earlier days when automobiles were a new thing, a hand crank was used to start the engine, but this was somehow inconvenient and really hard work to crank the engine up to speed.
How Car Insurance Works - May 3, 2006 - 12:47:00 PM
Insurance is a system whereby persons are required to pay a certain amount as premium in order to protect his or her health or property against the financial risk by transferring the risk to a larger group who agree to share the financial losses in exchange of the premium. There
How Radar Detectors Work - May 3, 2006 - 12:41:00 PM
Radar detectors are popular gadgets among speedsters who derive thrill from bending the rules and eluding the radar guns of the police. Here’s a look at how they work.
How NASCAR Safety Works - May 3, 2006 - 12:32:00 PM
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) team comprising of engineers, designers, and mechanics work together to design the perfect racing car without compromising on its safety. Now, if we look at a scenario where a racing car traveling at a speed of around 200 mph crashes into
How A Brake Booster Works - May 3, 2006 - 1:32:00 AM
To understand the principle behind a brake booster, it is important to understand how a basic brake system works. Certainly no one would disagree that the brake system is one of the more essential systems to the functioning of the vehicle and safety of the passengers. Most of us haven’t
How Does A Fuel Cell Work - May 2, 2006 - 12:42:00 PM
A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity, with water and heat as by products. (How much water?) Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide energy for systems as large as a utility power
How Windshield Wipers Work - Apr 30, 2006 - 11:05:00 PM
Our windshield wipers are an important tool on our car, especially during the rainy seasons. They have changed dramatically over the years, from the manual device that had to be moved from side to side by a handle from inside the vehicle, to the automatic ones we use today. We
How Remote Entry Works in Your Car - Apr 30, 2006 - 10:52:00 PM
Most of us have encountered remote controls before, whether it was to set the car alarm, open the garage door or whether you were playing with your kid’s remote control toys; but how do they really work? Over the years there have been many changes made to the way our
How the Gibbs Aquada Works - Apr 30, 2006 - 10:47:00 PM
On the 3rd of September 2003 in the London docklands, Gibbs technologies unveiled and launched their creation The Aquada, a sports car and motor boat all rolled in to one. This revolutionary vehicle is built with High Speed Amphibian (HSA) technology, and can drive up to 100 mph on land
How to Buy Tires - Apr 24, 2006 - 9:24:00 PM
At some time or another we all have to replace the tires on our vehicles. In this article you will learn what all those figures and numbers on the side of your tires mean and which tires are best suited to your needs. If you have bought your vehicle from
How Power Windows Work - Apr 24, 2006 - 8:45:00 PM
We all know that with power windows you push the button up or down, and the windows move. But how does this really work? It all begins with the car battery that sends the power to the power distribution box, from there the power is directed to the ignition; so
Tire Pressure Gauges How They Work - Apr 24, 2006 - 7:40:00 PM
We all know that our car tires are filled with air and that at certain times the air pressure in them decreases. We can check the air in our tires with a tire pressure gauge, but how much do we know about these devices and how do they work? It
How To Change Disc Brakes - Apr 9, 2006 - 11:58:00 PM
Disc brakes are standard on the front of most passenger vehicles. The majority of car makers have gone to four wheel disc brake systems or disc brakes on the front and back instead of disc brakes in the front and drum brakes in the back. The disc and disc pad
How to Change Ball Joints - Apr 9, 2006 - 11:45:00 PM
With a good set of instructions, a small amount of mechanical knowledge and a bit of patience, you can change the ball joint yourself and save a tremendous amount of money in labor costs.
How Mufflers Work - Apr 9, 2006 - 11:45:00 PM
If you really wanted to know how mufflers work, you have to know a sound is produced. Instead, if you open a muffler and try to see it you will not any wiser than you were earlier. Opening a muffler to see how it works without knowing the theory is
How To Replace Brake Calipers - Apr 9, 2006 - 11:30:00 PM
There are some obvious signs that require that you look into the status of your brakes. Those signs include: soft, spongy or hard brake pedal, shuddering steering wheel, slow stopping, squealing or any other noise generally coming from the brake area or a brake warning light that stays on. Brakes
How To Replace Brake Hoses - Apr 9, 2006 - 11:00:00 PM
Brake hoses rarely need to be replaced unless they are compromised by certain factors. Manufacturer defects can cause the walls of the hoses to be soft creating a problem for the vacuum system. Soft or inefficient brake hoses can also cause the brake pedal to drag. Using low quality brake
How Hydrogen Economy Works - Apr 9, 2006 - 11:00:00 PM
What is hydrogen economy: We have a large source of hydrogen fuel that is water. If only we can change the water into hydrogen and oxygen, we can have an unending source of non-polluting fuel. The economy based on such fuels is the known as the hydrogen economy. Let us
How to Change Disc Brakes - Apr 9, 2006 - 7:49:00 PM
Changing disc brakes is a relatively easy process if you have a few good tools and the necessary instructions. It is important to understand how the brakes work in order to understand better how to work with them. There are several parts to the brake assembly including the disc, the
Fog LIghts What are They - Apr 1, 2006 - 10:22:00 PM
You will normally find more than one fog light on a vehicle, so there is usually at least two and they are situated on the front of a vehicle or truck. They are used to help visibility in foggy or misty conditions.
Just about every vehicle has them and they
Wheel Bearings What Are They? - Mar 28, 2006 - 11:25:00 PM
Wheel bearings perform two very important jobs in a vehicle’s suspension. The wheel bearing allows the wheels to rotate with minimal function, and they also support the vehicle’s weight. To be able to do both of these jobs, the bearings must be in near perfect condition. The seals must also
How the Jaws of Life Work - Feb 23, 2006 - 10:40:00 PM
About the ‘Jaws of Life’: In this section before understanding how Jaws of Life work, lets first look at what the terms 'Jaws of Life' means. Jaws of Life are a set of tools used by Emergency workers at auto accident sites to retrieve accident victims trapped inside their automobiles.
How Brakes Work? - Feb 22, 2006 - 8:23:00 PM
The modern automotive brake system has been refined for over 100 years and has become extremely dependable and efficient. In the brake system the disk brakes are connected at the front and either drums or disk brakes are in the rear connected by a system of tubes and hoses that
How Vehicle Air Bags Work? - Feb 22, 2006 - 8:14:00 PM
Cars in motion have a momentum of their own and the riders traveling in the car move along with the car at its speed until it crashes and comes to a sudden halt. In the event of a collision, the force needed to stop the passenger is very large as